Use arrays, models, and groups to demonstrate multiplying by whole numbers

Multiplication can be made easier by using an array. An array is a model that uses rows and columns to demonstrate factors. For example, let’s demonstrate  5 \times 4 using an array model. This array will be viewed as five columns of 4 circles OR four columns of 5 circles.

This array shows four rows of five, if you count all of the dots, you will get a product of 20.


Another way to solve this problem could be using a strategy called grouping. We will use the same equation listed above,  \mathbf{5 \times 4 =20}. With this strategy we will create five groups of four dots, or we will create four groups of five dots. In this case, we have created four groups of five dots.

The two factors are four and five. Displayed  are Four groups of five. This gives us a product of 20.

It’s your turn to use the grouping strategy. Take the two factors and create five equal groups of four.


The key to being successful using this strategy is making sure that your groups are equal, your work must be neat and accurate.

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