### Mathematics Class IX

Number Systems
Polynomials
Coordinate Geometry
Lines and Angles
Triangles
Circles
Constructions
Heron’s Formula
Surface Areas and Volumes
Statistics
Probability

# Introduction

Euclid was a teacher of mathematics at Alexandria in Egypt, popularly known as ‘Father of Geometry”.

He introduced the method of proving mathematical results by using deductive logical reasoning and the previously proved result.

He collected all his work in a book called “Elements”. This book is divided into thirteen chapters and each chapter is called a book.

Euclid thought that the geometry is an abstract model of the world which we can see around us. Like the notions of line, plane, surface etc.

He had given these notions in the form of definitions-

1. Anything which has no component is called Point.

2. A length without breadth is called Line.

3. The endpoints of any line are called Points which make it line segment.

4. If a line lies evenly with the points on itself then it is called A Straight Line.

5. Any object which has length and breadth only is called Surface.

6. The edges of a surface are lines.

7. A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on itself.

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